Menteri Keuangan Dan Gubernur Bank Sentral Negara G20 Bekerjasama Untuk Solusi Tantangan Ekonomi Global Terkini

Intinews | Menteri Keuangan dan Gubernur Bank Sentral Negara G20 telah selesai melaksanakan pertemuan yang kedua. Atas undangan Kepresidenan Indonesia, Menteri Keuangan Ukraina menghadiri pertemuan ini bersama dengan negara undangan lainnya, serta organisasi internasional dan regional. Dalam pertemuan ini, Menteri Keuangan dan Gubernur Bank Sentral G20 melanjutkan pembahasan agenda pada pertemuan sebelumnya di Februari 2022 di Jakarta, dengan fokus pada empat agenda utama, yakni 1) ekonomi global dan risikonya; 2) isu kesehatan global; 3) arsitektur keuangan internasional; dan 4) keuangan berkelanjutan.

Terkait perang di Ukraina, anggota G20 menyatakan keprihatinan mendalam tentang krisis kemanusiaan dan dampak ekonomi yang dihasilkan. Di samping itu, anggota G20 berbagi pandangan bahwa perang dan tindakan yang menyertainya telah dan akan semakin menghambat proses pemulihan global, di mana negara-negara berpenghasilan rendah dan rentan akan paling terpengaruh karena masih menghadapi tantangan lain yang belum selesai seperti akses vaksin yang terbatas, ruang fiskal yang sempit, dan kerentanan utang yang tinggi. Dampaknya negara-negara di seluruh dunia harus turut membayar biaya tinggi dari perang ini.

Dalam sambutannya, Menteri Keuangan Sri Mulyani mengungkapkan, G20 merupakan forum kerja sama ekonomi internasional, untuk mengatasi tantangan ekonomi dunia yang kompleks.

“Anggota G20 menekankan peran krusial G20 sebagai forum kerja sama ekonomi internasional, untuk mengatasi tantangan ekonomi dunia yang kompleks. Maka dari itu, para anggota juga mendukung langkah penyesuaian terhadap agenda yang tengah berjalan guna menanggulangi dampak ekonomi dari perang, sambil tetap menjaga komitmen untuk mencari solusi bagi tantangan global yang telah berlangsung lama agar dunia pulih kembali dengan kuat secara berkelanjutan, inklusif, dengan pertumbuhan yang seimbang”, ujarnya.

Sebagai pemegang Presidensi G20 saat ini, Indonesia  membuka dialog untuk meraih konsensus dalam isu-isu penting yang memengaruhi stabilitas dan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Untuk mencapainya, Indonesia mengadopsi sejumlah prosedur yang telah disepakati sejak presidensi-presidensi sebelumnya, di antaranya memiliki kewajiban untuk mengundang seluruh anggota G20 ke dalam pertemuan dan mengawal diskusi secara efektif demi mencari solusi yang melibatkan suara semua anggota. Indonesia telah menerima dukungan penuh dari anggota untuk bekerja sama mengatasi tantangan global, sembari tetap mengusung agenda utama Presidensi Indonesia, Recover Together, Recover StrongerDengan semangat multilateralisme, para anggota dapat mencapai konsensus di pertemuan kedua FMCBG hari ini.

Gubernur Bank Indonesia, Perry Warjiyo Menanggapi kondisi ekonomi global terkini, anggota G20 menyampaikan kekhawatiran tentang tekanan inflasi yang lebih luas dan persisten. Kondisi ini akan menyebabkan beberapa bank sentral menaikkan kebijakan suku bunga mereka yang pada gilirannya akan mengakibatkan pengetatan likuiditas global yang lebih cepat dari perkiraan. G20 menyatakan pentingnya memenuhi komitmen pada bulan Februari mengenai strategi keluar yang terkalibrasi, terencana, dan dikomunikasikan dengan baik untuk mendukung pemulihan dan mengurangi potensi limpahan (spillover).

“Peran G20  semakin penting dengan membawa kebijakan ke dalam ranah dunia. Setiap negara tidak lagi hanya berfokus pada dampak kebijakan secara domestik di negaranya, namun lebih luas terhadap proses pemulihan di negara lainnya.”  Dengan demikian,  proses normalisasi kebijakan yang dilakukan secara well callibrated, well planned, dan well commmunicated oleh bank sentral menjadi semakin terfasilitasi terutama di kondisi saat ini”, lanjut Perry Warjiyo.

Anggota G20 juga menyatakan bahwa konflik geopolitik telah membuat pertumbuhan dan pemulihan global jauh lebih kompleks. Hal ini berpotensi melemahkan upaya dalam mengatasi tantangan ekonomi global yang sudah ada sebelumnya, termasuk kesehatan, kesiapsiagaan dan respons pandemi, utang yang tinggi di negara-negara rentan, serta mitigasi dan adaptasi perubahan iklim. Perang juga mengakibatkan krisis kemanusiaan dan meningkatkan harga komoditas seperti energi dan pangan.

Pada agenda kesehatan global, disepakati bahwa tindakan kolektif dan terkoordinasi untuk mengendalikan pandemi tetap menjadi prioritas. Anggota G20 mencatat peningkatan angka COVID-19 di beberapa wilayah telah menghambat pertumbuhan, mendisrupsi rantai pasok, dan meningkatkan inflasi, serta memperlambat pemulihan global. Dalam hal ini, berdasarkan penilaian WHO dan World Bank, terdapat kesenjangan pembiayaan signifikan yang perlu ditangani.

G20 telah mencapai konsensus untuk mengatasi kesenjangan tersebut melalui pembentukan mekanisme keuangan baru yang didedikasikan untuk mengatasi kesenjangan pembiayaan untuk kesiapsiagaan, pencegahan dan tindakan terhadap pandemi. Dana Perantara Keuangan (FIF) yang ditempatkan di World Bank adalah opsi paling efektif untuk mekanisme keuangan baru. Dalam hal ini, untuk memulai proses mendirikan FIF, Presidensi Indonesia perlu mengawal diskusi seputar isu tata kelola dan pengaturan operasional. Presidensi Indonesia menargetkan mekanisme keuangan baru tersebut dapat terselesaikan sebelum pertemuan tingkat Menteri Kesehatan G20 di bulan Juni. Ini akan menjadi salah satu manfaat nyata dari Presidensi G20 Indonesia, sesuai arahan Presiden Joko Widodo.

Selanjutnya, terkait agenda Aristektur Keuangan Internasional, anggota G20 kembali menegaskan komitmennya untuk mendukung negara-negara berpenghasilan rendah dan rentan, terutama mereka yang berisiko mengalami kesulitan utang. G20 juga menyambut baik pembentukan Resilience and Sustainability Trust (RST) dan mendorong lebih lanjut pemenuhan ambisi global sebesar USD 100 miliar dari kontribusi sukarela untuk negara-negara yang membutuhkan.

Mengingat situasi saat ini, para anggota mengakui peran penting Bank Pembangunan Multilateral (MDB) untuk mendukung pembiayaan pembangunan di negara-negara yang rentan dan dalam meningkatkan partisipasi sektor swasta. Anggota G20 juga berbagi pandangan tentang langkah ke depan untuk meningkatkan ketahanan dan mendukung pemulihan volatilitas aliran modal serta menegaskan kembali komitmen untuk penguatan dan efektivitas Jaring Pengaman Keuangan Global dengan meletakkan IMF sebagai pusatnya.

G20 akan melanjutkan proses reformasi tata kelola IMF melalui Tinjauan Umum Kuota ke-16 selambat-lambatnya 15 Desember 2023. G20 juga membahas kemajuan dari pelaksaaan Kerangka Kerja Bersama G20 tentang perlakuan utang, dan langkah-langkah selanjutnya untuk memastikan implementasi yang lebih tepat waktu, teratur, dan terkoordinasi serta dapat diprediksi. G20 menyambut baik kesepakatan perlakuan utang untuk Chad dan menantikan pembentukan Komite Kreditur untuk Zambia secara tepat waktu.

Terakhir, mengenai agenda keuangan berkelanjutan, anggota G20 kembali mengaskan bahwa keuangan berkelanjutan sangat penting untuk pemulihan ekonomi global yang hijau, tangguh, dan inklusif serta pencapaian Agenda 2030 untuk Pembangunan Berkelanjutan. Anggota G20 membahas komitmen yang dicapai pada bulan Februari untuk memastikan implementasi dari Peta Jalan Keuangan Berkelanjutan G20. Hal ini termasuk mengembangkan kerangka kerja sukarela dan tidak mengikat untuk transisi keuangan, meningkatkan kredibilitas komitmen lembaga keuangan, dan mengembangkan alat kebijakan demi meningkatkan instrumen keuangan berkelanjutan dengan fokus pada peningkatan aksesibilitas dan keterjangkauan. Konsensus ini akan sangat mendukung salah satu target utama Presidensi G20 Indonesia dalam melakukan transisi energi yang adil dan terjangkau (just and affordable).

Selanjutnya, para Menteri Keuangan dan Gubernur Bank Sentral G20 akan melanjutkan dialog dalam Pertemuan Ketiga yang akan diselenggarakan di Bali pada tanggal 15-16 Juli 2022. (**)

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